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9 ravenous beasts and poisonous reptiles abound, if con- scientiously observed, would necessarily prove highly detrimental to the human inhabitants.
But religious precepts, arbitrarily imposed, do not always suffice to curb the brutal instincts of the natural man, and the torture of animals, unwittingly through ignorance or wilfully through malice, is not unknown even in Bud- dhistic lands.
They wero reared and cherished because they contributed to the comfort and general welfare of the community, and this association during successive generations gradually led to the growth of permanent and traditional sentiments of kindness and benevolence toward them, and a natural desire to promote their happiness.
The Sanskrit word for cattle (pasu) signified a creature " bound " to serv- ice, whether men, kine, horses, goats, or sheep, and the Roman familia included both domestic animals and slaves.
These prescriptions, as well as those en- joining considerate care and compassion for cattle of every kind, although proclaimed as a revelation of the Good Mind (Yohu-mano) and embodied by Zara- thustra in the Iranian religion, in order to invest them with supreme authority, were really based upon a per- ception of the intrinsic worth of the creatures them- selves and their usefulness to man.
This is evident from the distinction made between beneficent and baneful creatures, the latter being products and agents of the Evil Mind (Akem-mano emanating from the Hurtful Spirit Angro-mainyush), which it is the sacred duty of the worshippers of the Living God (Ahura- mazda, the personification of the Bountiful Spirit Spento-mainyush) to exterminate.
Thomas Aquinas, the *' angelic doctor," whose metaphysical quillets and quodlibets received the sanction of the Council of Trent and still rank as quasi-articles of faith in the Catholic Church, it is only necessary to show that the supposed chasm has no real existence as a fixed, final, and im- passable barrier, and in the light of modern anthropo- logical and psychological research has resolved itself into a wavering, indeterminable, and almost evanescent line of demarcation. 5 Nowhere seen the golden apple, Him my darling staff of silver ?
— Ideation in animals and men 222 VIII.— Speech as a barrier between man and beast . Survivals of this primitive cult are found in the my- thologies of the most highly cultivated peoples, as, for example, in the eagle of Jupiter, the owl of Minerva, and the serpent of ^sculapius, where the animal, that was originally the real object of adoration, has become, in the evolution of religious ideas, simply the emblem of an anthropomorphic deity.
— Progress and perfectibility in the lower ani- mals 197 VII. This feeling is the source of totemism and the worship of deified ancestors in the forms of beasts and birds and even reptiles, which is probably the basis of all zoolatry.
Survivals of animal worship in the cults of civilized races. If he recognises their superiority, he tries to flee from them or seeks to avert their wrath and win their favour by reverential submission and propitiation.
This dualism of god and devil is practically applied in the story of creation as recorded in the first fargard of the Vendidad, and furnishes the foundation of the most reasonable and equitable system of animal ethics developed by any Oriental people.
Buddha forbade his followers to kill any animal whatsoever, and this absolute prohibition in the countries in which Buddhism prevails and ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY.